How do I print spine labels for books I am cataloging?
When the record for the book you are cataloging is on the screen (in Browse mode) press ALT-F7. This will print the spine label for this book to your dot-matrix printer. The first time you do this a message may come up saying you have not specified a report (depending on the version of PAL you are using). Just press "Y" for "Yes" (that you want to use the last report selected) and this message should not come up again during that PAL session.
When you first enter the cataloging panel(from the menu) you are in the "browsing" mode (for looking up and viewing records). To add a record press the F9 key. You will then be in the "create record" mode. All the fields will be blank except for default values (e.g., "hardcover book", "softcover book" or whatever you set in the system settings panel as the default media) and the entry date/time and user ID of the user creating the record. These are automatically calculated when you first create the record.
After entering your data press F10 to save (or F7 to
exit the panel and save). (Note that when you catalog an item "on the fly" from the Checkout panel you will already be in "create" mode and the barcode number (inputed to checkout panel) will already be entered in the catalog panel.)
Re: Call Numbers
The call number is automatically entered based on what
is in the first subject heading ("Subj.1") field. The
call numbers and subject headings that come with the
program are based primarily on SEARS LIST OF SUBJECT
HEADINGS, 15th ed (New York, H.W.Wilson Co.;1994).
However, you can change these numbers to anything you
want. Just go to the Subject Heading Panel (from the
Main Menu go to the Cataloger's Menu (choice #7) then
"Subject Headings Panel" (choice #2). Look up the
subject heading you want to change, press F6 to go to
"Edit record" mode, TAB over to the Call Number field
and change it, then press F10 to save. Then, whenever
you enter that subject heading in the catalog panel
the new call number will be automatically entered.
How do we handle pamphlets and newspaper clippings?
Most libraries have a filing cabinet - or lateral file cabinet - which is called the "Vertical File". This contains items which are too physically flimsy or which are ephemeral - but which you want to save and have accessible
via the library catalog (e.g., pamphlets, maps, etc).
The problem is that it's clumsy to use the Dewey system to arrange the folders within the Vertical File (at least for a small VF collection). So many libraries arrange the folders by subject headings instead.
PAL lets you use "Pamphlets" as a media type (it's already on the pick list). You can also add a new media type "Clippings" or "Newspaper Clippings" by going to the Media Types panel (via the Administrator's Menu).
Library of Congress for call #'s: I have been modifying the panel so I can enter the LC # manually (which has been successful) - - however, when I go back to the original catalog panel (in the #7 Cataloger's menu), the 1st 3 initials of the last name of the author are still appearing with the LC call number (For example, author is Doka, and "DOK" is showing up after LC# I listed - - -
First of all, PAL was not intended for use with LC and we don't purport to provide support for LC issues. However, please note that libraries that use LC usually also add Cutter numbers. In PAL, these are the three first letters of the author's last name (although "real" Cutter numbers
employ a different formula using letters and numbers).
So there shouldn't be a problem using LC with PAL.
All we are cataloging is via DDC, is the 610 Medical Sciences (this is a nursing program library) - - thus, the material involves a majority of nursing school curriculum; but also breaks down into pharmacology (sp), surgery, etc, etc. Thus, how do you suggest I catalog? Should I label call #'s at 610 category, and then break it down into specifics (i.e. 610.1 Pharmaclogy, 610.2 Nurse Surgery, 610.3 Art history involving Nursing profession, etc, etc)
(OR, what do you suggest?) Basically, every materail will be medical>nursing>then broken down into those components listed above)
First of all, pharmacology classes as 615 in Sears (Sears List of Subject Headings, 16th Ed) - surgery classes as 617. The book "Nursing, the finest art : an illustrated history" / M. Patricia Donahue is given the nursing history number (616.009) by Los Angeles Public Library (see
http://www.lapl.org/ ). LAPL uses Library of Congress subject headings instead of Sears. Most specialized medical libraries copy the cataloging from National Library of Medicine which apparently has a unique classification system (more specialized than either Dewey of Lib of
Congress systems. I would go to their site for more information about this.
You should be able to use any classification system with PAL. The field will accept letters as well as numbers. Of course you'd have to change the Dewey numbers in the Subject heading panel for the subjects you want to keep. The only issue is if the length of the number (or lettering) is longer than 12 characters - and whether they create Cutter numbers as does PAL because this is usually used with Dewey and LC.
How does my PAL library catalog get onto the internet?
A report in PAL generates the file C:\catalog.txt .
This is uploaded using a script on our Library Avenue
web site. Updating instructions are simple:
"Overwrite files on the server: Click the
"Overwrite" link. This will open up an upload window
that will allow you to select a file from your local
hard drive. Once the file is submitted it will
overwrite the file on the server.
The first step in cataloging a book or other type of item for your library is what's called "descriptive cataloging". What's the title of this item? the author(s)?, publisher?, date of publication? Most books have a title page just inside the front cover which provides most of this information. (Incidentally, the cover of a book sometimes doesn't present the title or author(s) accurately. Get in the habit of looking only to the title page for this information. On the reverse side of the title page is usually found the copyright date (use the latest one) and usually has what is called "Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data" which is a "cheat sheet" for you to use in the later stages of cataloging.
Cataloging multiple copies of an item
How do I catalog books that we have more than one copy of? Do I have to catalog them as if they were different ones?
Browse to the existing record for the copy of the item you already have, then press F9 to create a new record. Now when you press F4 on any field the data from the existing record will pop into that field without having to re-type it. The only field that MUST be different is the barcode field. This is the key field which must be unique for every library item.
Adding Subject Headings
Can subject headings be added to PAL's pick-list of subject headings?
Yes. You are not limited to the list of subject headings included with the program. You can add your own subject headings. And, in fact, you should be adding your own subject headings as needed. For example, let's say you have a new book written about the life of someone named Mary Jones. You would then need to create a new subject heading
"Jones, Mary -- Biography"
This, of course, is not in our included list of sample subject headings. (You would then assign the call number "92" which is the call number for biographies of individuals).
PAL's database of subject headings and associated Dewey numbers is based on SEARS LIST OF SUBJECT HEADINGS, 15th ed. (New York, H.W.Wilson Co.).
However, you can easily add to, delete, or edit the headings that come with PAL.
Yes. F4 retrieves data from the background record. The most recently displayed record in a panel is the "background record". You can retrieve data from a background record into the record currently being created by pressing Select [F4].
Yes. From the main menu choice "7" ("Catalogers Menu"), then choice "6" ("Reports Menu"), then choice "2" ("Print List of Items for a Subject") will print out lists of items subject by subject as you choose the subjects. If you want to print a list of all library items listed by subject from Main Menu choice "7", then choice "6", then choice "4" ("Catalog Cards Menu"), then choice "9".
Cataloging and Classification
Cataloging a book, videotape, audiotape, CD, DVD, pamphlet, or other library item, is the process of incorporating that item into the library collection by entering its bibliographic information into the library catalog and by attaching to the physical item the appropriate physical identifications (eg., barcode label, spine label, etc) so that it can be found easily on the shelf and so that it can be identified as a specific item checked out of the library.
Steps in the cataloging process are the following (not always in this order):
1. Assigning a subject heading.
The purpose of subject cataloging is to list under one word or phrase all of the materials about a given subject that a library has in its collection.
Printed lists of subject headings results in standards which catalogers can rely on. The seventeenth edition of Library of Congress Subject Headings (1994) has approximately 206,300 authority records (headings)printed in four large volumes each some three inches thick, and is the standard for most major American libraries.
The purpose is to list under one uniform word or phrase all of the items on a given subject that a library has in its collection. A subject is the topic treated in a book, video, or other item. A subject heading is the word or phrase used in the library catalog to express this topic. Library materials are given subject entries in the catalog in order to show what information the library has on a given subject, just as author entries are made to show the works that the library has by a given author. By looking up the subject of, say, 'UFO'S', the library user or the librarian can quickly find all items in the library which deal with the topic of UFO's. Principles of determining the subject of a work.
The true subject of a work is not always easy to determine. It cannot always be determined from the title alone. Obviously, something titled 'The Book of Stars ' could refer to Actors (791.4) or Stars (523.8), of the astronomical variety.
In the case of a book, first check the inside of the title page to see if the CIP (cataloging-in-publication already done for you by the Library of Congress) is there. If not, then you should read the title page (the page inside the book - not what's on the cover), examine the table of contents and skim the introduction and maybe look through some of the text to determine the subject of the book.
a. Principle of Specific Entry. Enter a work under the most specific term (i.e. subject heading) that accurately and precisely represents its content. If a work is about penguins, it should be entered directly under the most specific heading available, that is, Penguins. It should not be listed uner Birds or even under Water Birds. If it were, a reader would have to look through many entries to find information on penguins. If the reader wants information about bridges, the direct approach is to consult the catalog under the heading Bridges, not under the broader subject Engineering subdivided by the topic Bridges. A book with the title Birds of the Ocean should not be entered under both Birds and Water Birds bunt only under Water Birds. To eliminate the necessity of duplication, a network of 'See also' references in the catalog directs the reader from the broader subject headings to the more specific ones, e.g., 'Birds. See also Water birds.
b. Principle of Uniformity. One uniform term must be selected from several synonyms, and this term must be applied consistently to all works on the subject. Term must be inclusive and cover the topic and must also be unambiguous.
c. Form Headings. Form subject headings refer to the literary form of a work and not to its subject matter. Fiction, Poetry, Drama, Essays. Slavery -- United States -- Fiction.
d. Works are classed by discipline, not by subject. A single subject may be dealt with in many disciplines.
2. Assigning a classification identification based on the assigned subject heading.
There are two major systems in the United States for classification of library items: Dewey Decimal Classification system and Library of Congress system.
According to the Dewey Decimal Classification web site (http://www.oclc.org/fp/about/about_the_ddc.htm): 'The Dewey Decimal Classification is the most widely used classification system in the world. Libraries in more than 135 countries use the DDC to organize and provide access to their collections, and DDC numbers are featured in the national bibliographies of sixty countries. Libraries of every type apply Dewey numbers on a daily basis and share these numbers through a variety of means (including WorldCat, the OCLC Online Union Catalog). Dewey is also used for other purposes, e.g., as a browsing mechanism for resources on the Web.'. The Dewey system assigns a number from 001 to 999.999 etc for each subject heading.
The Library of Congress system is used by most American university libraries. It follows the shelving of items at the Library of Congress and uses a scheme of letters and numbers.
There are printed lists of subject headings and associated classification numbers. By using such a list your library has a strandard on which to rely in regard to consistency in both the level of specificity and the form of subject headings.
PAL Library Automation System is based on Sears List of Subject Headings (N.Y.;H.W.Wilson Co.) which uses the Dewey system. Therefore, PAL is based on the Dewey system. However, if you need to use a different subject heading list, it is possible to change the Dewey numbers to LC numbers if you wish in PAL's subject heading panel.
I have to do a Sears subject heading for a book titled:
Plea Bargaining: is it fair?
What should it look like? If I see one, I'll understand how to do it.
Sears List of Subject Headings, 15th ed (NY, HW Wilson, 1994) does not have a heading as specific as "plea bargaining". It has "Criminal law" with an associated Dewey number of 345. Narrower headings, "Administration of criminal justice" or "Trials" also use 345. If your library is strong in the area of law then you would want a more specific number.